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Thinning Practices in Southern Pines - With Pest Management Recommendations

T. Evan Nebeker – Respectively, professor, Department of Entomology,
John D. Hodges – Professor, Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS,
Bob K. Karr – Assistant professor, Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, and
David M. Moehring – Professor (deceased), Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Technical Bulletin 1703, December 1985.

Literature Cited

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Andrulot, E.R.; Blackwell, L.P.; Burns, P.Y. Effects of thinning on yield of loblolly pine in central Louisiana. Louisiana Tech. Bull. No. 6. Ruston, LA: Louisiana Tech University, Division of Research; 1972. 145 p.

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Brender, E.V.; McNab, W.H. Precommercial thinning of loblolly pine by fertilization. Res. Pap. 90. Macon, GA: Georgia Forestry Research Council; 1978. 8 p.

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Cooperi, R.W. Precommercial thinnings of pine bring earlier cash returns. Southern Lumberman 191(2386): 32, 1955.

Crow, A.B. Why thin pine stands? Forest Farmer 23(2):8, 15-16; 1963.

Debrunner, L.E.; Watson, W.J. Precommercial thinning of loblolly pine stands. Alabama Highlights of Agricultural Research 17(4): 6; 1971.

Dickerson, B.P. Soil compaction after tree length skidding in northern Mississippi. Soil Science Society of America Journal 40:965-966; 1976.

Enghardt, H.G. Early thinnings – by individual trees or by rows. In: Proceedings, symposium on planted southern pines. 1968 October 22-23; Cordele, GA. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area State and Private Forestry; 1968: 84-91.

Enghardt, H.G.; Mann, W.F., Jr. Ten-year growth of planted slash pine after early thinnings. Res. Pap. SO-82. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1972. 11 p.

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Feduccia, D.P.; Dell, T.R.; Mann, W.F., Jr.; Campbell, T.E.; Palmer, B.H. Yields of unthinned loblolly pine plantations on cutover sites in the West Gulf Region. Res. Pap. SO-148. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1979. 88 p.

Feduccia, D.P.; Mann, W.F., Jr. Black turpentine beetle infestations after thinning in loblolly pine plantations. Res. Note SO-206. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1975. 3 p.

Feduccia, D.P.; Mann, W.F., Jr. Growth following initial thinning of loblolly pine planted on a cutover site at five spacings. Res. Pap. SO-120. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1976. 8 p.

Feduccia, D.P.; Mosier, J. The Woodworth spacing and thinning study – an obituary. Forests and People 27(1):18-21; 1977.

Fender, D.E. Short rotation – up to 30 years. In: Proceedings, symposium on planted pines. 1968 October 22-23; Cordele, GA. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Area State and Private Forestry; 1968: 11-22.

Foil, R.R.; Ralston, C.W. The establishment and growth of loblolly pine seedlings on compacted soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 31:565-568; 1967.

Froelich, R.C.; Cowling, E.G.; Collicott, L.V.; Dell, T.R. Fomes annosus reduces height and diameter growth of planted slash pine. Forest Science 23(3):299-306; 1977.

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Froelich, R.C.; Hodges, C.S., Jr.; Sackett, S.S. Prescribed burning reduces severity of annosus root rot in the South. Forest Science 24(1):93-100; 1978.

Gilmore, A.R.; Boggess, W.R. Growth and yield from row thinning in a shortleaf pine plantation in southern Illinois. For. Note 126. Urbana, IL: Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station; 1969. 3 p.

Goebel, J.R.; Warner, J.R.; Van Lear, D.H. Periodic thinnings in loblolly pine stands: growth, yield, and economic analysis. For. Res. Ser. No. 28. Clemson. SC: Clemson University, Department of Forestry; 1974. 11 p.

Grano, C.X. Precommercial thinning of loblolly pine. Journal of Forestry 67:825-827; 1969.

Grano, C.X. Growth of planted loblolly pine after row and selective thinning. Res. Note SO-123. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1974. 3 p.

Gruschow, G.F. Results of a precommercial thinning in slash pine. Southern Lumberman 179(2249):230-232; 1949.

Guttenberg, S. Case for precommercial thinning. Forest Farmer 29:13-18; 1970.

Halls, L.K. Effect of timber harvesting on wildlife, wildlife habitat, and recreation values. In: McMillin, C.W., ed. Symposium proceedings, complete tree utilization of southern pine. 1978 April; New Orleans. Madison, WI: Forest Products Research Society; 1978: 108-114.

Halls, L.K.; Schuster, J.L. Tree herbage relations in pine-hardwood forests of Texas. Journal of Forestry 63:282-283; 1965.

Hardie, I.W. Optimal management plans for loblolly pine plantations in the mid-Atlantic region. MP906. College Park, MD: Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station; 1977. 107 p.

Harms, W.R.; Collins, A.B., III Spacing and 12-year growth of slash pine. Journal of Forestry 63:909-912; 1965.

Hatchell, G.E. Site preparation and fertilizer increase pine growth on soils compacted in logging. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 5(2): 79-83; 1981.

Hatchell, G.E.; Ralston, C.W. Natural recovery of surface soils disturbed in logging. Tree Planters' Notes 22(2):5-9; 1971.

Hatchell, G.E.; Ralston, C.W.; Foil, R.R. Soil disturbances in logging. Journal of Forestry 68:772-775; 1970.

Hedden, R.L. Evaluation of loblolly pine thinning regimes for reduction of losses from southern pine beetle attack. In: Jones, E.P. Jr., ed. Proceedings, second biennial southern silvicultural research conference. 1982 November 4-5; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-24. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station; 1983: 171-181.

Hicks, R.R., Jr.; Coster, J.E.; Watterston, K.G. Reducing southern pine beetle risks through proper management planning. Forest Farmer 38:6-7, 18:1979.

Hicks, R.R., Jr.; Howard, J.E.; Coster, J.E.; Watterston, K.G. The role of tree vigor in susceptibility of loblolly pine to southern pine beetle. In: Hollis, C.A.; Squillace, A.E., eds. Proceedings, fifth North American forest biology workshop. Gainesville, Fl: University of Florida, School of Forest Resources and Conservation; 1978. 177-181.

Hicks, R.R., Jr.; Howard, J.E.; Watterston, K.G.; Coster, J.E. Rating stand susceptibility to southern pine beetle in east Texas. Forest Ecology and Management 2:269-283; 1980.

Hodges, C.S. Symptomatology and spread of Fomes annosus in southern pine plantations. Res. Pap. SE-114. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station; 1974. 10 p.

Hodges, J.D.; Lorio, P.L., Jr. Moisture stress and composition of xylem oleoresin in loblolly pine. Forest Science 21:283-290; 1975.

Holley, L. Grow a crop of money trees. American Forester 85(10):18-19, 50, 52-54; 1979.

Jackson, L.W.R. Growth of unthinned loblolly, slash, and longleaf pine plantings in Georgia. Res. Pap. 63. Macon, GA: Georgia Forestry Commission; 1970. 6 p.

Jones, E.P., Jr. Precommercial thinning of naturally seeded slash pine increases volume and monetary returns. Res. Pap. SE-164. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station; 1977. 12 p.

Kellison, R.C.; Gingrich, S., eds. The loblolly pine ecosystem (east region). Proceedings, symposium; 1982 December 8-10; Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University; 1982. 335 p.

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King, T.; Haines, S. Soil compaction absent in plantation thinning. Res. Note SO-251. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1979. 4 p.

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Lorio, P.L., Jr. Developing stand risk classes for the southern pine beetle. Res. Pap. SO-144. New Orleans: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 1978. 9 p.

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Mann, W.F., Jr.; Lohrey, R.E. Precommercial thinning of southern pines. Journal of Forestry 72(9):557-560; 1974.

Mason, R.R. Behavior of Ips populations after summer thinning in a loblolly pine plantation. Forest Science 15(4):390-398; 1969.

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McMinn, J.W. Precommercial thinning. Forest Farmer 24(12):10-11; 1965.

Moehring, D.M. Forest soil improvement through cultivation. Journal of Forestry 68:328-331; 1970.

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Moehing, D.M; Rawls, I.W. Detrimental effect of wet weather logging. Journal of Forestry 68(3):166-167; 1970.

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Nebeker, T.E.; Moehring, D.M.; Hodges, J.D.; Brown, M.W.; Blanche, C.A. Impact of thinning on host susceptibility. In: Jones, E.P., Jr., ed. Proceedings, second biennial southern silvicultural research conference; 1982 November 4-5; Atlanta, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-24. Asheville, NC; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station; 1983: 376-381.

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Ware, L.M.; Stahelin, R. Growth of southern pine plantations at various spacings. Journal of Forestry 46:267-274; 1948.

Wheeler, G.L.; Meade, F.M.; Russell, M.W. Growth of loblolly pine in the Arkansas Ozarks. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 6:215-217; 1982.

Whipple, S.F. Early thinnings from pine plantations. Prog. Rep. Ser. No. 85. Auburn: Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station; 1962. 3 p.

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Williston, H.L. Growth and yield to age 37 in north Mississippi loblolly plantations. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 3(30):127-130; 1979.

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